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Indian Mathematics

Laplace (1749-1827), the French mathematician once remarked – The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its signicance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Its simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst use-ful inventions. the importance of this invention is more readily appreciated when one considers that it was beyond the two greatest men of antiquity, Archimedes and Apollonius”.

David W. Henderson1 Department of Mathematics, Cornell University In this paper I will present a method for finding the numerical value of square roots that was inspired by the Sulbasutra which are Sanskrit texts written by the Vedic Hindu scholars before 600 B.C.. This method works for many numbers and will produce values to any desired degree of accuracy and is more efficient (in the sense of...

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Let us begin with a discussion of some of the important systems of number- representation that prevailed in India. Indians had separate names for the powers of ten, up to 17:- eka = 1, dasa = 10, sata = 100- 10^2 , sahasra = 1000- 10^3 ayuta= 10,000 = 10^4, niyuta (also called /aksa) = 100,000 = 10^5 prayuta = 1 ,QQQ,QQQ :106 , k0fi: 1 Q,QQQ,QQQ: 107 , arbuda = 1 QQ,QQQ,QQQ:...

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The Vedic people entered India about 1500 BC from the region that today is Iran. The word Vedic describes the religion of these people and the name comes from their collections of sacred texts known as the Vedas. The texts date from about the 15th to the 5th century BC and were used for sacrificial rites which were the main feature of the religion. There...

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It is worth beginning this article with the same quote from Laplace which we give in the article Overview of Indian mathematics. Laplace wrote:- The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer...

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In all early civilizations, the first expression of mathematical understanding appears in the form of counting systems. Numbers in very early societies were typically represented by groups of lines, though later different numbers came to be assigned specific numeral names and symbols (as in India) or were designated by alphabetic letters (such as in Rome). Although today, we take our decimal system for granted, not...

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